• Spectrum of Life

Hallmarks of Aging

Do you know you have two different ages? The obvious one is chronological age, or the number of years since you were born. The other is biological age, or the time-dependent decline of your body’s function and appearance.


Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of physiological integrity, leading to impaired function and increased vulnerability to death. This deterioration is the primary risk factor for major human pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Nowadays, aging is subjected to scientific scrutiny based on the ever-expanding knowledge of the molecular and cellular bases of life and disease.


Aging is the accumulation of cellular damage. Examples; atherosclerosis and inflammation, involve uncontrolled cellular overgrowth or hyperactivity.


Possibilities to intervene to delay aging involves the compensatory responses that try to re-establish homeostasis and the interconnection between the different types of damage.


In recent years, scientists studying the molecular and cellular processes that govern these changes and their variation in individuals have identified nine interconnected “hallmarks of aging”. Determined mainly by our genetics, but modulated by environmental factors, each of these nine hallmarks contributes to the damage that occurs with age and ultimately drives age-associated pathologies.


Genomic instability

The expression of instability due to exposure to smoke, chemicals or other exogenous agents leads to gene mutations, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and so on.


Telomere attrition

The normal DNA replication mechanisms in most of our cells are not a